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Wednesday, August 13, 2008

MINI PROJECT of S6 EC (PART 2)



  Remote controlled Fan Regulator

ABSTRACT
  Remote controlled Fan Regulator is one of the applications of electronics to increase the facilities of life. Fan is one of the unavoidable Electronic equipment in our day today life. It ahs become essential element without which people can’t lead a smooth life. The presence of a fan in a house or office is not now considered as a luxury on the other hand it is included in the basic requirement. The use of new electronic theories have been put down by expertise to increase the facilities given by the existing appliance. Here the facility of ordinary fan is increased by the making it controlled by a remote.                                                                                                              
 In remote controlled fan regulator we can regulate the speed of the fan by using a remoter control. Here the variation in the firing angle of triac is used for regulating the speed. In this 2 NE 555 IC is wired as Monostable multivibrator. MOC 3021 act as optoisolater there is a decade counter CD 4017. For varying firing angle there is a Triac BT 136. For regulating the input AC supply there is a regulator Section consisting of IC 7809 and transformer (12 V0- 12 V). For receiving IR signal TSO P1738 is used.

Any button on the remote can be used for controlling speed of the fan. Using this circuit, we can change the speed of the fan from our couch or bed. This circuit is used for controlling this speed of the fan in 5 levels. This innovating can be success only if people are made aware about its advantages and how uses friendly it is. The circuit can be used to regulate the intensity of light. This innovation finds its use mainly to help oldage people who doesn’t want. To walk in order to control he speed of fan. It also finds its use of somebody wants to change the speed while sleeping. They don’t want to go out of the bed.


INTRODUCTION

  A circuit that allows total control over your equipments without having to move around is a revolutionary concept. Total control over the speed of the fan is a boon to many. This product brings to you this very concept.

 Remote control facilitates the operation of fan regulators around the home or office from a distance. It provides a system that is simple to understand and also to operate, a system that would be cheap and affordable, a reliable and easy to maintain system of remote control and durable system irrespective of usage. It adds more comfort to everyday living by removing the inconvenience of having to move around to operate a fan regulator. The system seeks to develop a system that is cost effective while not under mining the need for efficiency.

 The first remote control, called “lazy bones” was developed in 1950 by Zenith Electronics Corporation (then known as Zenith Radio Corporation). The device was developed quickly, and it was called “Zenith space command”, the remote went into production in the fall of 1956, becoming the first practical wireless remote control device.



Today, remote control is a standard on other consumer electronic products, including VCRs, cable and satellite boxes, digital video disc players and home audio players. And the most sophisticated TV sets have remote with as many as 50 buttons. In year 2000, more than 99 percent of all TV set and 100 percent of all VCR and DVD players sold are equipped with remote controls. The average individual these days probably picks up a remote control at least once or twice a day.

Basically, a remote control works in the following manner. A button is pressed. This completes a specific connection which produces a Morse code line signal specific to that button. The transistor amplifies the signal and sends it to the LED which translates the signal into infrared light. The sensor on the appliance detects the infrared light and reacts appropriately.

The remote control’s function is to wait for the user to press a key and then translate that into infrared light signals that are received by the receiving appliance. The carrier frequency of such infrared signals is typically around 36 kHz .
One of the primary objectives of an engineer is to endeavor to deliver the best product or the most efficient services at the lowest cost to the end user. The system was found to meet the expected results.

The aim of this work is to design and construct a remote control for a fan regulator.. The remote control device sends an infra-red beam, which is received by the infra-red sensor on the regulator and the fan also increases in speed.


BLOCK DIAGRAM






BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

Infrared Receiver Module:
 Here TSOP 1738 is used as infrared receiver Module. The infrared rays transmitted by the remote control in received by TSOP 1738. it is capable of receiving signals upto 38 Khz.

Monostable Multivibrator:
 Here NE 555 IC is wired as monostable multivibrator. The trigger to this is signals from receiver module. Monostable multivibrator is used forgetting a accurate pulse.

Decade Counter:
 CD 4017 is used as decade counter. Here actually ten outputs are there from which five are used (Q0 to Q4), Q5 is not used and Q6 is used to reset. The output of monostble is used to delay the clock pulse of decade counter.

Regulator Section:
 The 230 V Ac us step down to 12 V by transformer (12V-0-12V). This 12V is regulated wring IC 7809 to 9V. This 9V is supplied to the whole circuit.

Opto Coupler:
 MCT2E is used as optocoupler. It is used to trigger the monostable multivibrator.

Opto Isolator:
 MOC 3021 is used as opto isolator. It is used to drive the Triac BT 136.

Triac BT 136:
 It is thyristor with a firing angle nearly 450. A snubber circuit consisting of a resistor and capacitor is used to control the firing angle of Triac. This firing angle determines the speed of the fan.


CIRCUIT DIADGRAM


WORKING OF CIRCUIT

  The 230 V from AC mains is stepped down to 12V and Regulated by IC 7809 and, capacitor and Diodes to 9V. This filtered 9V is used for proceeding supply to the entire circuit. Any button of remote control can be used to control the speed of the fan. The remote control produces infrared rays which is received by the TSOP infrared receives module. The TSOP used here is TSOP 1738. It is capable for receiving signals up to 38 KHZ. The infrared rays received by the TSOP senses it and its output is wired as a trigger to the first monostable multivibrator NE 555 through a LED and Resistor R4.

 This NE 555 which is wired as Monostable multivibrator is used to delay the clock to decade counter which is CD 4017. We can directly give the output of TSOP to decade counter, but white doing so all the small pulse or noises may also act a clock to counter and counter starts counting. The decade counter has ten outputs from Q0 to Q9. But here we are using only Q0 to Q4. Q5 is not used and Q6 is used to reset the counter. The outputs of decade counter is taken through Resistors R5 to R9. The resistor Rs to R9 and capacitor C5 controls the pulse width which is actually determining the speed of the fan high capacitor C% is charged through R6 and so on. Here we are controlling the speed of the fan.

 When the output of Q0 is high the capacitor C5 is charged through R5, if Q1 is high capacitor C5 is charged through R6 and so on. Here we are controlling the speed of the fan in five levels that is why we are taking five outputs (A0 to Q4).

 Another NE 555 used here which is also wired as monostable multivibrator. This monostable is triggered by pulses from out coupler MCT 2E. It is wired as Zero crossing detector. The output from decade counter is given to NE555 and this is given to the transistor BC 548 it is given to the Opto isolator MOC 3021. It is used for driving the Triac BT 136. Triac is a type of thyristor. Here the resistor R13 (470hm) and capacitor C7 (0.01µF) combination is used as snubber network for the Triac.

 By the controlling done by Resistors R5 to R9 and capacitor C5 we can control the pulse width. When Q0 output is high the pulse width is maximum, when Q1 output is high pulse width is decreased slightly. As the pulse width decreases firing angle of the triac increases and speed of the fan also increases. By using remote control we are actually controlling pulse width which in turn vary the firing angle of triac, which inturn vary the speed of the fan.

COMPONENTS LIST

1. TSOP 1738
2. IC NE 555
3. IC MCT2E
4. IC MOC 3021
5. IC 7809
6. IC CD4017
7. TRANSFORMER 12V -0-12V
8. LED
9. DIODE
 . IN4148
 . IN 4007
10. TRANSISTOR BC548
11. TRIAC BT 136
12. CAPACITORS
0.01 µF /400V
4.7 µF /16V
10 µF /16V
1 µF /16V
0.22µF
470 µ /50V

13. RESISTORS
  1K
  100K
  330Ω
  47K Ω
  33K
  27K
  20K
  12K
  3.3K
  470 Ω
  5.6 K
  10 K
  47 Ω

14. ZENER DIODE
  5.1V


PCB FABRICATION

 Printed circuits boards play a vital role here in determining the overall performance of electronic equipment .A good PCB design ensures that the noise introduced as a result of component placement and track layout is held within limits while still providing components years of assembly maintenance and performance reliability.

WHERE AND WHY ARE PCB’S USED?

 Printed circuits boards are used to route electric signals through copper track which are firmly bonded to an insulating base.
 Advantages of PCB over common wiring are:
1. PCB’s are necessary for connecting a large number of electronic components in a very small area with minimum parasitic effects.
2. PCB’s are simulated with mass production with less chance of writing error
3. Small components are easily mounted.
4. Servicing in simplified.


The base materials used for PCB’s are glass epoxy, epoxy paper, polyester etc.Copper foil used for copper clad is manufactured by the process of electronic deposition .The properties of copper foil are:
  Thickness………………35μ meter
  Thickness tolerance……+5 μ meter
  Purity of Copper………99.8%
  Resistivity at 20◦C…….0.1594

PREPARATION OF SINGLE SIDED PCB
  In a single sided PCB the conductor tracks run only on one side of copper clad board. Thus crossing of conductors is not allowed. Base materials are selected according to application. It is mechanically and chemically cleansed. Then the photo resist is an organic solution which when exposed to light of proper wavelength, changes their solubility in developer but after exposure to light is not soluble. Laminate coating of photo resist is done by (i)spray coating (ii)Dip coating (iii)Roller coating. The coated copper clad and laminated film negative is kept in intimate contact with each other.

  The assembly is exposed to UV light and exposed board is rinsed in the developer tank. Proper developer has to be used for a particular photo resist and

then the PCB is dyed in a tray. The dye reveals the flux to be used for a particular photo resist. Then the PCB is dyed in a tray.

 LAYOUT
    The layout can be done either by hand or by using PCB designing software like ORCAD or PROTEL.

FABRICATION
   The required circuit is designed and the layout of the circuit is done on the component side as well as the copper clad side. Spaces are provided for holes to insert the respective components. Etch resistant ink coatings are given on the interconnecting marks.

FETCHING
 The copper clad PCB is etched with ferric chloride solution containing a small amount of Hydro Chloric Acid for increasing activeness of Ferric Chloride in etching. Wherever the varnish coating is there the copper remains. Then it is washed with water and Oxalic Acid

DRILLING
 The required holes are drilled using twist drill. Now the PCB is complete and ready for soldering.

 SOLDERING
  Soldering is the process of joining of two metals using an alloy solder consisting of Tin and Lead (Sn-Pb). Tin determines the melting whereas the Lead is used to reduce the cost. After the PCB fabrication is done, the various components are arranged at proper locations on the PCB and then the soldering is done.
  All liquids consist of particles which attract each other. The surface is always is trying to shrink and this is because of surface tension. The principle behind soldering is that when liquid particles are brought in contact with the walls of the solid surface, it may happen that the solid attracts the liquid surface. This property is called adhesive property. Care must be taken that the melting point of solder is below that of the metal so that its surface is melted without melting without the metal.

NEED FOR FLUX
During the soldering process the flux acts as a medium for improving the degree of melting. The basic functions of flux are mentioned below:
1. Removes oxide from the surface.
2. Assists the transfer of heat from the source to the joining and provides a liquid cover including air gap.
3. Removal of residue after the completion of the soldering operation.

PCB LAYOUT
 

 
 

  COMPONENT VIEW

 
 

 

APPLICATION

 Remote controlled Fan Regulator is used to control the speed of fan from our bed or couch. The same circuit finds its use to control the Intensity of light at fire levels. So it can be used as night lamps. This circuit also finds it use for switching ON and OFF any electronic circuit.

ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGE

ADVANTAGE

 This circuit is simple to use and efficient. It can be assembled with ease. It is cheap and hence and very economic. It is small in size and can be fixing inside the fan.

DISADVANTAGE

  The one and only one disadvantage of the circuit is that speed can be increased only in one direction. It can’t be decreased.


CONCLUSION

 With the knowledge of new techniques in ‘Electronics’ we are able to make our life more comfortable one such application of electronics is used in “REMOTE CONTROLLED FAN REGULATOR”.

  This same circuit find its use in many more applications. By this the intensity of light can be controlled using remote control. The intensity of light can be controlled in five levels from off position to maximum intensity possible. So it finds its use as night lamp by keeping the intensity of lamp in low level.

 The circuit also finds its use for switching ON and OFF any electronic circuitry. Our normal T.V remote can be used for controlling speed of fan or intensity of light. So it is very useful or a real help to oldage and sick people, since they can control the speed from the place where they are sitting.

 We feel that our product serves something good to this world and we like to present it before this prosperous world.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

• www.electronicsforyou.com
• Linear Integrated circuit – By Gaykwad
• www.howstuffworks.com

APPENDIX





5 comments:

GEOFRY MANNERS said...

I read your MINI PROJECT. wonderful try to design on/off controls for lamps and fans touch and remote switches with dimm and bright funchion.

regards
girieshvo@gmail.com

Nothing here said...

Hi,
Something more useful and simple circuit
www.hamradio.in/circuits/fan_regulator.php

Vinod said...

Nice blog created by blog director it’s very informative and template is according to blog theme. I would like to come on this blog again and again. Aluminium Soldering Flux, liquid soldering flux

The Analyst said...

I was searching for something like this, thank you very much.

Roney Joseph said...

Thnaks friends for leaving your commentss,,,,,,best of luck for your future works... Roney Joseph